What Makes Lyme disease so Difficult to Treat?
One of the main elements that makes Lyme disease so difficult to treat is its ability to hide from the immune system. Once the Borrelia burgdorferi is in the body, it starts to change its form by altering the proteins on its outer cell wall, effectively hiding itself from the immune system. With the ability to change its outer-cell-wall proteins, the Lyme bacteria becomes hidden from the immune system.
Borrelia Burgdorferi is capable of transforming into a cyst when it feels its life is threatened. While in cyst form, Borrelia obtains immunity from antibiotics, its host's immune system, and temperature and PH variations. It can also lower its metabolic rate while in cyst form in order to ward off starvation. When conditions within its host become more favorable, it will transform back into its spirochetal form (a corkscrew shaped). A spirochete can also have the added protection of a biofilm if it morphs into a cyst while inside a biofilm.